Vince Crawley's Africa Blog

AFRICOM Nominee Ham’s Written Q&A on African Security Issues

Posted in Uncategorized by Vince Crawley on November 18, 2010

Below are written answers to questions submitted by the Senate Armed Services Committee to General Carter Ham as part of his confirmation process to be considered as the next commander of U.S. Africa Command. The 105 questions and answers were released by the committee during Ham’s confirmation hearing Nov. 18, 2010.

Gen Carter Ham, nominated to be the next commander of U.S. Africa Command, testifies before the Senate Armed Services Committee on Nov. 18, 2010

Some questions are procedural, but others are essay questions based on some of the top issues facing U.S. foreign policy in Africa. Ham’s answers often don’t have a lot of detail — he’s been deeply immersed in his current duties and says, if confirmed, he will spend time assessing AFRICOM programs and learning about Africa. But the questions themselves offer a wealth of detail on matters that include counter-terrorism and countering violent extremism, contractors, AQIM, Sudan, Somalia, and the Lord’s Resistance Army, inter-agency cooperation in Africa, counter-narcotics, security assistance, and health programs.

Asked about Africa’s challenges and opportunites, Ham replied, “As President Obama stated in his remarks in Ghana, ‘Africa’s future is up to Africans.’ Addressing these problems will require the coordinated actions of USAFRICOM, other U.S. government organizations, multilateral organizations, and our African partners. If confirmed, I will continue the overall approach of assisting our partners in the region based on shared interests seeking African solutions to African problems. I will also closely review and assess USAFRICOM’s existing programs, policies and strategy before taking any actions.”

The questions and answers were originally posted earlier today in a PDF document on the Senate Armed Services Committee website. http://armed-services.senate.gov/statemnt/2010/11%20November/Ham%2011-18-10.pdf

I didn’t notice anything here about oil — many believe AFRICOM is some kind of conspiracy to allow the U.S. miliary to monopolize African oil and petroleum — but the Q&A does describe a very full plate of activities and responsibilities for the next AFRICOM commander.

Advance Questions for General Carter F. Ham, U.S. Army, Nominee for Commander, U. S. Africa Command

Defense Reforms

The Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 and Special Operations reforms have strengthened the warfighting readiness of our Armed Forces. They have enhanced civilian control and the chain of command by clearly delineating the combatant commanders’ responsibilities and authorities and the role of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. These reforms have also improved cooperation between the services and the combatant commanders, among other things, in joint training and education and in the execution of military operations.

1. Do you see the need for modifications of any Goldwater-Nichols Act provisions?

GEN Ham: No

2. If so, what areas do you believe might be appropriate to address in these modifications?

GEN Ham: N/A

3. Do you believe that the role of the combatant commanders under the Goldwater-Nichols legislation is appropriate and the policies and processes in existence allow that role to be fulfilled?

GEN Ham: Yes

4. Do you see a need for any change in those roles, with regard to the resource allocation process or otherwise?

GEN Ham: No

Duties

5. What is your understanding of the duties and functions of the Commander of U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM)?

GEN Ham: The Unified Command Plan specifies the responsibilities of USAFRICOM. If confirmed as the commander of USAFRICOM, I would be responsible for ensuring their accomplishment. In my view, the most important requirement is to detect, deter and prevent attacks against the United States, its territories, possessions, and bases and to employ appropriate force to defend the nation should deterrence fail. USAFRICOM’s responsibilities also reflect a new and evolving focus on building partner operational and institutional capacity at the country and regional levels and, where appropriate, supporting the efforts of other U.S. government agencies in the Area of Responsibility.

6. What background and experience do you possess that you believe qualifies you to perform these duties?

GEN Ham: In my 35 years of military service I have served in numerous positions that prepared me for this command. Four assignments, I think, have been key in my preparation to serve, if confirmed, as a Combatant Commander. From 2001-2003, I served on the staff at U.S. Central Command in Tampa then in Qatar. There I learned how Combatant Commands interact with the Joint Staff, with the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Services, and with the other Combatant Commands. In 2004-2005 I commanded Multinational Brigade-North in Mosul, Iraq where I gained valuable experience in how U.S. and other Coalition forces can effectively operate within a sovereign nation and alongside host nation security forces. In 2007-2008, I served as Director for Operations, J3, on The Joint Staff, gaining a worldwide view of U.S. military operations and gaining a keen appreciation for the interagency process. Finally, in my current assignment as Commander of U.S. Army forces in Europe, I have a full understanding of Service Component Command responsibilities in support of a Combatant Command and have first-hand experience in the value of theater security cooperation efforts and in building partner capacity.

7. Do you believe that there are actions you need to take to enhance your ability to perform the duties of the Commander of AFRICOM?

GEN Ham: Yes. I recognize that I do not yet have the necessary depth of understanding of the varied security challenges in Africa. I know that I will have to develop relationships with U.S. officials who share responsibilities for U.S. policies and activities in Africa and with key African leaders as well. I must gain a better understanding of the cultural, racial, ethnic, religious, linguistic, and regional diversity of the many peoples of Africa. If I am confirmed, I will begin a series of briefings with the USAFRICOM staff, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Department of State, the intelligence community, and others to better understand the challenges of the command and to prepare myself for this important duty.

8. If confirmed, what duties and functions do you expect the Secretary of Defense would prescribe for you?

GEN Ham: The specific responsibilities of USAFRICOM are defined in The Unified Command Plan which is approved by the Secretary of Defense and the President. If confirmed, I would expect to have discussions with the Secretary of Defense to confirm priorities for the command and to focus my efforts on those areas that require immediate attention.

Relationships

Section 162(b) of title 10, United States Code, provides that the chain of command runs from the President to the Secretary of Defense and from the Secretary of Defense to the combatant commands. Other sections of law and traditional practice, however,

establish important relationships outside the chain of command. Please describe your understanding of the relationship of the Commander, U.S. Africa Command to the following offices:

9. The Secretary of Defense

GEN Ham: Subject to direction from the President, the Commander USAFRICOM performs duties under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense. In addition, the Commander USAFRICOM is responsible to the Secretary of Defense for the readiness of the command to carry out its missions.

10. The Under Secretaries of Defense

GEN Ham: A direct command relationship between the Under Secretaries of Defense and the USAFRICOM Commander does not exist. However, I anticipate that the USAFRICOM Commander will regularly interact, coordinate and exchange information with the Under Secretaries of Defense on issues relating to USAFRICOM affairs. The Commander should directly communicate with the Under Secretaries of Defense on a regular basis.

11. The Assistant Secretaries of Defense

GEN Ham: There is not a direct command relationship between the Assistant Secretaries of Defense and the USAFRICOM commander. The USAFRICOM Commander and the Assistant Secretaries of Defense will work together on issues of mutual concern.

12. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

GEN Ham: There is not a direct command relationship between the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the USAFRICOM Commander. The Chairman functions under the authority, direction and control of the National Command Authority (NCA). The Chairman will transmit communications between the NCA and the USAFRICOM commander as well as oversee the activities of the commander as directed by the Secretary of Defense. As the principal military advisor to the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense, the Chairman is a key conduit between a combatant commander, Interagency organizations and the service chiefs. The USAFRICOM commander will keep the Chairman informed on significant issues regarding the USAFRICOM AOR. The commander will directly communicate with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on a regular basis.

13. The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

GEN Ham: There is not a direct command relationship with the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. However, the USAFRICOM commander will keep the Vice Chairman informed of all significant issues regarding the USAFRICOM AOR. The Vice Chairman serves on several councils and boards whose decisions affect USAFRICOM including the Joint Requirements Oversight Council, the Defense Acquisition Board, the Defense Advisory Working Group and

the Senior Readiness Oversight Council. Interaction between the Commander USAFRICOM and the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is important to ensure these boards and councils make informed choices on matters affecting the command. When so designated the Vice Chairman acts as chairman and performs the duties of the Chairman. When acting as Chairman, the Commander USAFRICOM would regularly communicate and coordinate with the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

14. The Director of the Joint Staff

GEN Ham: There is no direct command relationship between the Director of the Joint Staff and the USAFRICOM commander. The USAFRICOM commander will work with the Director of the Joint Staff on issues related to USAFRICOM.

15. The Secretaries of the Military Departments

GEN Ham: There is no direct command relationship between the Secretaries of the Military Departments and the USAFRICOM commander. The Secretaries of the Military Departments are responsible for all affairs of their respective departments including functions pertaining to the administration of and support to forces employed by USAFRICOM. The secretaries fulfill their responsibilities by exercising administrative control through the Service Component Commands assigned to USAFRICOM. In this manner, the Secretary of the Army is the executive agent for USAFRICOM headquarters.

16. The Service Chiefs

GEN Ham: There is no direct command relationship between the Service Chiefs and the USAFRICOM commander. The Service Chiefs are responsible for ensuring the organization and readiness of each service branch and for advising the President. The Service Chiefs are also members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and serve as military advisers to the President, National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense. For matters affecting USAFRICOM, I would anticipate regular communication between the Commander USAFRICOM and the Service Chiefs. The Service Chiefs do not have operational command authority. The USAFRICOM Commander will rely on the Service Chiefs to provide properly trained and equipped forces to accomplish missions in the USAFRICOM AOR.

17. The other geographic and functional combatant commanders

GEN Ham: Formal relationships between the USAFRICOM commander and the other geographic and functional combatant commanders will derive from command authority established by title 10 USC Section 164 and from the Secretary of Defense when such relationships are established by him during operational missions. Combatant commanders closely coordinate as necessary to accomplish all assigned missions. These relationships are critical to the execution of our National Military Strategy, and are characterized by mutual support, frequent contact, and productive exchanges of information on key issues.

18. The respective U.S. Chiefs of Mission

GEN Ham: Each Ambassador serves the President directly as his personal representative for that country. If confirmed, I will ensure that all activities of the Combatant Command in each country are fully coordinated with the Chief of Mission, consistent with U.S. policy.

19. The respective U.S. Senior Defense Officials/Defense Attachés (SDO/DATT)

GEN Ham: There is a supervisory relationship between the USAFRICOM Commander and the SDO/DATT. The U.S. SDO/DATT is formally evaluated by the USAFRICOM commander. This relationship ensures the SDO/DATT maintains close coordination with USAFRICOM on all matters involving U.S. military forces in the country. As the AFRICOM commander, I will maintain a close working relationship with the U.S. Senior Defense Official in each country in order to coordinate activities between the command and the respective country’s military.

20. The National Security Advisor and National Security Council

GEN Ham: There is no formal relationship between the National Security Advisor and USAFRICOM, nor between the National Security Council and USAFRICOM. I would expect that information or requests for information from the NSA and NSC would be passed thru the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Commander USAFRICOM.

Major Challenges and Opportunities

21. In your view, what are the major challenges and opportunities that would confront you if you are confirmed as the next Commander of AFRICOM?

GEN Ham: There have been positive changes in the past decade as many African nations have taken steps to increase the stability and security of the continent. There have been improvements in regional cooperation across the continent. For example the Gulf of Guinea nations are working more closely together in the field of maritime security and there has been an increase in the cooperation and effectiveness of Regional Economic Communities. I think it is important to seek opportunities to build upon these positive steps.

There are also significant challenges in Africa that require sustained and significant attention. The emergence of transnational terrorist threats, piracy, narcotics, smuggling, and human trafficking create areas of instability which directly impact the quality of life of the population in those areas and affect U.S. national interests. I believe these problems are best addressed regionally.

22. If confirmed, what plans do you have for addressing these challenges and opportunities?

GEN Ham: As President Obama stated in his remarks in Ghana, “Africa’s future is up to Africans.” Addressing these problems will require the coordinated actions of USAFRICOM, other U.S. government organizations, multilateral organizations, and our African partners. If confirmed, I will continue the overall approach of assisting our partners in the region based on shared interests seeking African solutions to African problems. I will also closely review and assess USAFRICOM’s existing programs, policies and strategy before taking any actions.

U.S. Objectives in Africa

In his address in Ghana in July 2009, President Obama reaffirmed Africa’s strategic importance to the United States and our national interests. He identified four priorities for the U.S. government’s engagement efforts: (1) supporting strong and sustainable democracies and good governance; (2) fostering sustained economic growth and development; (3) increasing access to quality health and education; and (4) helping to prevent, mitigate, and resolve armed conflict.

23. In your view, what is AFRICOM currently doing to advance each of these objectives?

GEN Ham: USAFRICOM plays a supporting role in all four. To support the first priority, USAFRICOM works with the nations of Africa to strengthen their security institutions including advancing civil authority over militaries. In order to achieve the second priority, sustained economic growth and development, the other three priorities must be addressed. USAFRICOM also conducts programs that address medical readiness issues of African forces which support broader U.S. health efforts and also fosters professional military education opportunities for our African partners. USAFRICOMs efforts in support of the training of peacekeeping forces and assistance to on-going international peace efforts support the final priority. Ultimately, these efforts combined help maintain stability in Africa, which sets conditions that fosters achievement of sustained economic growth and development.

24. If confirmed, what efforts do you hope to undertake during your time as the Commander of AFRICOM?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I plan to continue the process of integration and cooperation with other U.S. Government agencies that the command has focused on since its formation. I would seek to enhance and continue the programs and activities that build partner security capacity among African nations, the African Union (and its Regional Economic Communities), and its African Standby Force.

Counterterrorism Priorities

Violent extremism by transnational terrorist organizations is a major source of regional instability. In the last year, al-Qaeda and terrorist groups in Africa appear to have strengthened their collaboration. Al-Qaeda operatives are active in East Africa, while al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) operates across the trans-Sahara region of Northern and Western Africa. The leaders of Somalia-based Al-Shabaab have publicly aligned themselves with al-Qaeda, having issued public statements praising Osama Bin Ladin and linking Somalia to al-Qaeda’s global operations. Al-Shabaab also announced its support to al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) at the same time that AQAP activities increased in Yemen, separated from Somalia by the 20-mile wide Bab-el-Mandab Strait.

25. Within the AFRICOM area of responsibility (AOR), what do you consider the highest counterterrorism priority?

GEN Ham: I recognize that I do not have access to the full range of intelligence concerning threats and counter-terrorism activities in the USAFRICOM Area of Responsibility. Based on my current understanding, I believe AQIM and Al-Shabab represent the two highest counter-terrorism priorities in Africa.

26. Given your current knowledge of AFRICOM programs, do you believe the Command’s resources are aligned in a manner consistent with these counterterrorism priorities? If confirmed, do you plan to make any changes?

GEN Ham: I believe the Command’s focus is consistent with the intent and objectives defined by the President and the Secretary of Defense. If confirmed, I will assess current and future programs before making any changes.

Al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)

27. What is your assessment of the threat posed by Al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)?

GEN Ham: I recognize that I do not have access to the full range of intelligence concerning threats in the USAFRICOM Area of Responsibility. Based on my current understanding of the area, I believe Al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) is seeking to expand its operational reach and increase attacks within its current area of operations. AQIM at present is threatening to conduct attacks against government forces and installations and to conduct kidnappings for ransom of Western citizens in Mali, Mauritania and Niger. AQIM operations in vast, sparsely inhabited areas in the Sahel region also pose significant challenges to a coordinated state response.

28. In your view, does AQIM pose a threat to U.S. and/or western interests outside of its immediate operational area (Mali, Mauritania, and Niger)?

GEN Ham: Based on my current understanding of the area, yes. AQIM has threatened Western European nations, in particular France, with a campaign of terrorist violence based on attempts by the French administration to impose restrictions on traditional Muslim dress. AQIM is also hostile to recent attempts by the Italian government to restrict immigration from North Africa and to detain and deport illegal immigrants living and working on the European continent.

29. What is your assessment of Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans-Sahara (OEF-TS) and the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) program?

GEN Ham: OEF-TS is the military component of a coordinated U.S. government effort under TSCTP. Based on my current understanding, OEF-TS has been successful at building the capacity of northern Sahara and Sahel militaries through training, equipping, and advising programs and has brought about regional cooperation which has increase effectiveness.

30. If confirmed, what changes, if any, do you intended to implement vis-à-vis OEF-TS and TSCTP?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the program prior to making any changes.

Connection between al Qaeda and al Shabab

31. In your assessment, what, if any, connection exists between al Shabab and al Qaeda and its affiliated groups (e.g., al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula)?

GEN Ham: I recognize that I do not have access to the full range of intelligence concerning any possible connection between these two entities. I am aware that al Shabab has claimed they have a relationship with al Qaeda. This terrorist group is one of the two major counterterrorism priorities in Africa. If confirmed, I will more thoroughly assess this area.

Horn of Africa – Regional Security Approach

Somalia is a collapsed state with a weak government unable to project either power or stability or to provide services to its people. Somalia is also a training and operations hub for al Shabab and al Qaeda violent extremists, pirates operating in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Peninsula, illicit traffickers of weapons, humans, and drugs, and remnants of the al-Qaida East Africa cell that was responsible for the destruction of our embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi in August of 1998. U.S. Central Command, according to public reports, is in the process of developing a multi-year $1.5 billion security forces assistance fund for Yemen. While the conditions in Yemen are different than Somalia, according to a July 2010 report to Congress from the State Department, the U.S. objectives in Somalia – eliminate the threat of violent extremists and enable the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) to provide basic services to all Somalis – are not dissimilar from Yemen. By nearly all accounts, neither AFRICOM nor the U.S. Government are currently resourced to accomplish these objectives.

32. Putting aside the ongoing DOD-State Department security assistance review, would you support or oppose a comparable security forces assistance fund dedicated to the Horn of Africa to combat the regional threat posed by Somalia?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I would review the current resources and programs in the Horn of Africa to determine the merit of establishing a similar security assistance fund for Somalia. If there is a requirement or need I will not hesitate to communicate it through my chain of command.

Somalia – Threat to the Homeland

A particularly concerning element of the threat emanating from Somalia is the reported increase in the number of resettled Somali refugees – many of whom carry western passports – returning home to Somalia to receive training from violent extremist elements operating in Somalia. The intentions of these individuals traveling to Somalia in most cases are unknown, but the threat they potentially pose to the homeland could be significant.

33. In your view, what is your assessment of the threat posed to the homeland by violent extremist elements operating in Somalia?

GEN Ham: I recognize that I do not have access to the full range of intelligence concerning threats emerging from Somalia. Based on my current understanding of the area, I believe the Al- Qaeda organization as a whole is actively engaged in operational plotting against the United States. The organizations in Somalia appear to be one of the highest threats in the USAFRICOM area of operations. If confirmed, I will assess this threat in depth.

Given the nature of this threat, any effort to counter it requires interagency collaboration.

34. What you do believe to be the appropriate role of AFRICOM?

GEN Ham: Interagency collaboration is vital. The appropriate role of USAFRICOM is to support the U.S. policy decisions on how to address the Somalia situation. At present, this includes helping build the security capacity of nations contributing forces to African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM).

Engagement with Puntland and Somaliland

The State Department recently announced the intention of the U.S. Government to engage more actively with the governments of Puntland and Somaliland with a view towards helping improve their capacity to provide services to their people and develop their economies.

35. What is your assessment of U.S. efforts to pursue an increased level of cooperation with Puntland and Somaliland?

GEN Ham: I read comments from Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Johnnie Carson, who stated “We think that both of these parts of Somalia have been zones of relative political and civil stability, and we think they will, in fact, be a bulwark against extremism and radicalism that might emerge from the south.” If confirmed, I would seek an opportunity to discuss with Secretary Carson and other senior policy-makers, how USAFRICOM might support U.S. diplomatic and development assistance initiatives.

36. In your view, should security assistance be a component of any engagement strategy with Somaliland and Puntland?

GEN Ham: I believe that the security challenges in Somalia cannot be addressed solely through military assistance, but also require diplomatic and developmental engagement. U.S. Military assistance in Somalia is one small piece of a broader U.S. Government strategy for Somalia. If confirmed, I will review with other senior policy-makers, how USAFRICOM might support U.S. diplomatic and development assistance initiatives.

Sudan

Most observers of the current situation in Sudan have concluded that the January 2011 referendum will result in South Sudan seceding and violent conflict erupting along certain resource-rich portions of the undefined border.

37. In your view, what role, if any, should AFRICOM play in the months leading up to the January 2011 referendum vote?

GEN Ham: The U.S. and international community are unified in support of the following principles: first, the referenda must be carried out on schedule and reflect the will of the people of the southern Sudan and, second, the results of the referenda must be recognized. The U.S. continues to be in close contact with the Government of Sudan, African leaders, and other members of the international community to ensure that these principles are upheld. USAFRICOM’s role is to support, as requested, the ongoing diplomatic initiatives to ensure a peaceful outcome.

38. If confirmed, what approaches would you expect to explore in the event violent conflict erupts following the January 2011 referendum?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I would provide support as directed in support of U.S. government policy. I would be particularly concerned about the potential for violence to spread across borders into neighboring countries.

U.S. Security Assistance

The funding pool available for security assistance and other military-to-military engagement activities devoted to the AFRICOM AOR is extremely small and tends to be allocated to specific countries.

39. What is your understanding of the role AFRICOM plays in developing U.S. security assistance (e.g., Section 1206, Foreign Military Financing, International Military Education

and Training assistance, Combatant Commander Initiative Fund, etc…)?

GEN Ham: Security cooperation planning is done in close coordination with the Department of State, Department of Defense, country teams and requesting nations. This coordination is essential as there are various sources of funding and approval chains. For example, 1206 funding is a dual approval process between the Department of Defense and Department of State with a congressional notification requirement. This coordination also ensures synchronization of programs between agencies.

Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006, as amended, established a program that gives DOD, in coordination with the Department of State, the authority to provide training, equipment, and supplies to foreign militaries to undertake counterterrorism or stability operations in which the U.S. Armed Forces participates.

40. What is your assessment of the Section 1206 program?

GEN Ham: I believe 1206 funding is accomplishing the goals it was designed to achieve. Security cooperation activities are the foundation of our efforts to promote security, stability and partnership in Africa and elsewhere and ultimately support our National Security Strategy. In my current position as Commander U.S. Army Europe, 1206 funding allows for training that prepares our ISAF coalition allies in Europe to deploy to Afghanistan. Assisting our partners in developing professional militaries is a key factor in the stability of a nation.

41. Given your understanding of the program, what changes, if any, would you recommend based on your knowledge of the requirements of our partners in the AFRICOM AOR?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the current programs before recommending changes.

Support to United Nations Peacekeeping Missions in Africa

In testimony before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs on July 29, 2009, Ambassador Susan Rice, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations (UN), stated that the United States “is willing to consider directly contributing more military observers, military staff officers, civilian police, and other civilian personnel—including more women I should note—to UN peacekeeping operations.” Admiral Mullen has said he views “UN peacekeeping operations to be extremely important and cost effective in comparison to unilateral operations” and that “the success of these operations is very much in our national interest.”

42. In your view, should the United States increase the number of personnel it contributes in the form of staff positions and experts on mission positions to UN peacekeeping missions and other international peace operations?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will examine the number and position of U.S. military personnel serving on UN missions in Africa. DOD personnel have broad experience in working in multinational environments and leading multinational forces. For this reason, U.S. forces would be valuable to UN peacekeeping missions which are composed of forces from various nations. The commitment of a few experts to lead or advise peacekeeping missions potentially precludes the need to deploy larger number of U.S. forces. I have personal experience on a UN peacekeeping mission having served for six months in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. I do believe that U.S. military personnel can make a valuable contribution to UN missions, but each mission must be evaluated carefully.

43. In your view, what are the advantages and disadvantages of contributing additional military personnel to UN operations in the form of staff positions and experts on mission positions?

GEN Ham: The advantages are that these operations are a limited commitment in terms of number of forces and have a potential for high return on investment – few personnel in return for not having to deploy large numbers of U.S. forces. Additionally, U.S. forces bring expertise which could increase the effectiveness of the operation. The disadvantages are that currently, U.S. forces are deployed in large numbers and more commitments will stress the force. Also, peacekeeping staff and experts tend to be senior military personnel which are currently in short supply due to operational needs.

Counternarcotics

Illicit trafficking is a growing concern in Africa. West Africa is a node for Latin American drugs transiting to their primary destination in European markets. In addition, drugs originating in Asia are transported through South and East Africa on their way to Europe. The destabilizing influence of narcotics trafficking threatens to undermine stability in a number of countries in Africa and helps to expand the Latin American cartels’ network throughout the region. Despite the increase in illicit trafficking across the African continent, AFRICOM has secured a limited amount of funding for its counternarcotics efforts.

44. What is your assessment of the current AFRICOM counternarcotics program?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will review the role of USAFRICOM and its interagency partners with respect to counternarcotics. I am aware that USAFRICOM has a counternarcotics team that appraises the command of the broader national counternarcotics effort run by U.S. law enforcement agencies and helps develop defense contributions to those efforts.

45. Based on your review of the current program, if confirmed, what changes, if any, are you interested in exploring?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I would assess the current program prior to recommending changes.

Global Peace Operations Initiative

In 2004, the President announced the Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI). The goal of this State Department initiative was to train 75,000 peacekeepers, many of whom are from African partner nations. In 2009, the GPOI reached its original goal and is continuing to train additional peacekeepers and trainers. Funding from this program currently comprises the vast majority of U.S. security related assistance on the African continent, but AFRICOM plays a limited role in providing advice for prioritization and programming of these funds.

46. What is your understanding of the GPOI and African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) programs?

GEN Ham: USAFRICOMs contribution to the GPOI is the ACOTA program. ACOTA has been a successful program that our African partners greatly appreciate. Africans value “African solutions to African problems” which this program fosters. ACOTA-trained peacekeepers have done well in a number of peacekeeping operations.

47. What is your understanding of AFRICOM’s role vis-à-vis the GPOI and ACOTA?

GEN Ham: USAFRICOM has a vested interest in the success of ACOTA, as it helps build the capacity of African militaries to provide for their own security which support the U.S. Government goals for Africa.

48. If confirmed, what steps, if any, would you expect to take relating to these two programs?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the program before recommending any changes.

Intelligence Issues

Demand for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities of every kind has grown exponentially in recent years largely due to the enhanced situational awareness and targeting capabilities they bring to our commanders. Almost all of the geographic combatant commands have validated ISR requirements that are not being met.

49. What is your understanding of the support AFRICOM is currently receiving to respond to its ISR requirements?

GEN Ham: ISR has improved our ability to better understand and develop the situation on the ground and assist our partners. With a finite number of assets available, the allocation of scarce assets must be weighed against our theater security priorities. If confirmed, I will assess the current ISR support and requirements before recommending changes.

50. Do you believe the threat emanating from Somalia should garner additional resources from within DOD?

GEN Ham: I believe the threat from Somalia is of great concern and should be a main focus of USAFRICOM. If confirmed, I will closely examine this area.

In December 2004, Congress passed the 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA), which created the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) and charged it with conducting “strategic operational planning” to combat terrorist threats to U.S. interests at home and abroad. NCTC has taken the lead on developing the National Implementation Plan, a detailed, inter-agency plan for combating terrorism, which assigns roles and responsibilities to departments and agencies across the government.

51. What is your understanding of the role of NCTC with respect to AFRICOM?

GEN Ham: My understanding is the NCTC leads our nation’s effort to combat terrorism at home and abroad by analyzing the threat, sharing that information with interagency partners, and integrating all instruments of national power to ensure unity of effort. The NCTC develops strategic guidance and national, interagency objectives and tasks on counter terrorism matters which USAFRICOM and its interagency partners implement.

52. How will AFRICOM’s responsibilities for integrating military and civilian planning interface with NCTC’s responsibility for integrating military and civilian planning?

GEN Ham: I believe the correct approach would be to integrate the intelligence collected and made available by the NCTC in USAFRICOMs planning efforts with its interagency partners. If confirmed, I will seek to ensure NCTC and USAFRICOM stay closely linked.

53. How are the specific agency roles and responsibilities outlined in the National Implementation Plan integrated with AFRICOM’s efforts to bring stability to Africa?

GEN Ham: USAFRICOM routinely coordinates its plans with interagency partners which helps ensure agency roles and responsibilities are understood and respected. This coordination creates multi-faceted programs which address the root causes of instability that oftentimes are not areas military power alone can effectively address. African problems require a holistic approach that is best planned with all of our interagency and international partners to incorporate all the elements of national power.

In late 2009, Major General Michael T. Flynn, USA, the Chief, J-2, International Security Force and U.S. Forces – Afghanistan, published an article that criticized the intelligence community broadly for focusing excessively on support for kinetic operations against adversary forces in Afghanistan and failing to devote sufficient attention to the counterinsurgency strategy and its emphasis on population protection, tribal dynamics, cultural insight, the rule of law, and the like. Some observers contend that the national intelligence agencies focus their assistance to the Defense Department on special operators engaged in direct action operations. As a consequence, it is alleged, general purpose forces and special operations forces that are engaged in indirect activities, including foreign internal defense and population protection, receive less intelligence support. This focus on the human terrain and indirect activities would seem to have applications in the AFRICOM AOR.

54. Do you think that General Flynn’s criticism was accurate and, if so, has this imbalance been corrected?

GEN Ham: I generally agree with General Flynn’s points. The intelligence community appears to be recognizing the need to broaden its approach to better understanding the environment and we are seeing some of this with the rebalancing of intelligence assets at all levels. The intelligence community needs to make an investment in the training base as well as dedicating analysts to developing regional expertise that includes an understanding of population problems. The intelligence community organizations and assigned analysts must understand the environment beyond just the enemy situation to tie together the problems that lead to instability and dissatisfaction of the population which when not addressed lead to conflict development.

55. In your view, has the intelligence community devoted enough resources to provide policy makers and combatant commanders with the information on the cultural, social, political, and economic dynamics needed to formulate sound strategies for other critical regions, like Sudan and Somalia?

GEN Ham: MG Flynn highlights the need to better provide an emphasis on understanding these population related issues and focuses on U.S. intelligence support in Afghanistan. Africa has an even more diverse blend of tribes, cultures, religions, and environments, and is like no other theater. Much of Africa faces the potential of conflict. Other destabilizing threats such as crime, corruption, ethnic tensions, drought, disease, and political instability are too common throughout Africa. With the increased importance that we place on African countries, it is imperative that the proper emphasis be placed on understanding the complex environment of Africa. To accomplish this, DOD and other intelligence agencies will need to prioritize intelligence resources on Africa.

56. Is collection and analysis on these subjects in these areas a tier one priority for the intelligence community or is it classified as lower-priority general background intelligence information?

GEN Ham: At this time I do not have access to the full range and focus of USAFRICOMs intelligence efforts. If confirmed, I will assess the intelligence focus of USAFRICOM prior to making any changes.

Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA)

57. What is your understanding of the mission of CJTF-HOA and its relationship vis-à-vis AFRICOM?

GEN Ham: Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa conducts operations in the East Africa region to build partner nation capacity in order to promote regional security and stability, prevent conflict, and protect U.S. and coalition interests. CJTF-HOA is USAFRICOM’s only subordinate task force at the present time.

58. How do its roles and responsibilities compare with AFRICOM’s service component commands?

GEN Ham: There is no overlap between the components and CJTF-HOA. CJTF-HOA is a task force with a specific mission of countering violent extremism. The service components are the representatives of their Services in the force provider role.

59. How does AFRICOM ensure that CJTF-HOA activities complement rather than conflict with activities being conducted by AFRICOM’s service components?

GEN Ham: CJTF-HOA is a task force with a specific mission of countering violent extremism while the service components are the representatives of their Services in the force provider role. There is no conflict between the two. There is frequent coordination at all levels between the component commands and CJTF-HOA to ensure synchronization of actions and to prevent over or under laps in activities.

Maritime Security

Maritime security has proven to be a significant issue on the coasts of West and East Africa. In the west, northern migration to Europe and the Gulf of Guinea are the challenges, and, in the east, pirating in the major shipping lanes and transporting of terrorists to and from the Middle East are the challenges.

60. What is your assessment of AFRICOM’s ongoing maritime security initiatives?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess these programs prior to making any recommendations. My understanding is that these programs have been successful; however their effects are long term and it will take time to see lasting results. Many African nations have very limited navies or coast guards to begin with, and building their capacity will require a commitment of time and resources.

Very few African countries have the capacity to project naval forces beyond their coastal waters; as such the economic exclusion zones of many coastal African countries are exploited by a variety of international actors.

61. What opportunities, if any, do you see for expanded U.S. engagement on maritime security in the AFRICOM AOR?

GEN Ham: This is already happening. The AFRICA PARTNERSHIP STATION (APS), for example, has completed five full deployments by U.S. ships along with deployments of ships from several European nations under the APS banner. Maritime Domain Awareness initiatives have been very successful. My current understanding is that on the whole, our African partners are very satisfied and have requested more support.

Air Assets

62. What is your understanding of AFRICOM’s current airlift needs? Are they being met?

GEN Ham: USAFRICOM has significant airlift needs because of the lack of air infrastructure and vast size of the continent of Africa. Commercial air travel can be very difficult and the distances are long. Close coordination is conducted between USAFRICOM and USTRANSCOM to provide airlift support for passenger and logistical requirements.

63. Given that the movement of African military personnel and equipment for crisis response and contingency operations remains largely reliant on international airlift support, what is the appropriate role of AFRICOM in supporting such efforts?

GEN Ham: If U.S. policy decisions support the provision of airlift to help employ and sustain partners on peacekeeping missions, then it is entirely appropriate. I believe the long-term goal should be for the Africans to build their own airlift capacity over time and USAFRICOM would have a role in any such efforts.

Support to the African Union

64. In your view, what role, if any, should AFRICOM play in support of the African Union (AU) and its respective peacekeeping operations?

GEN Ham: It is appropriate for USAFRICOM to help build the security capacity of participating nations and regional organizations when those nations or organizations request our support.

65. What role, if any, should AFRICOM play in support of the AU regional standby brigades?

GEN Ham: It is appropriate for USAFRICOM to help build the security capacity of participating nations and regional organizations when those nations or organizations request support.

66. If confirmed, do you intend to explore any options for expanded engagement by AFRICOM with the AU?

GEN Ham: Yes. USAFRICOM has programs that are helping build the command and control and enabling capacities of the AU to sustain its own operations and lessen dependence on foreign assistance. In this regard, our activities are tremendous investments and the AU has been very appreciative. If confirmed, one of the first organizations I would visit would be the AU and the U.S. mission to the AU.

Lord’s Resistance Army

Despite pressure by the Ugandan People’s Defense Forces (UPDF), elements of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) continue to operate and commit atrocities against civilian populations in the Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Southern Sudan. The LRA Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act (P.L.111-172) requires the President to submit to Congress a strategy to support multilateral efforts to protect civilians from the LRA, to apprehend or remove LRA leader Joseph Kony from the battlefield, and to disarm and demobilize LRA fighters.

67. What role, if any, do you envisage AFRICOM playing in this strategy?

GEN Ham: Based on my current knowledge, USAFRICOM will play a supporting role to the efforts of the Department of State and other organizations. USAFRICOM currently conducts training for the Ugandan Defense Forces and I would expect this to be a part of the strategy.

68. In your view, what level of support would you consider appropriate to apprehend or remove Kony and his top commanders from the battlefield in the continued absence of a negotiated solution to the conflict?

GEN Ham: I recognize that I do not have access to the full range of intelligence concerning the Lord’s Resistance Army nor the full range of activities U.S. Africa Command with regard to the LRA. If confirmed, I will assess the situation to fully understand the implications of any actions.

Personnel

As of June 2010, AFRICOM reported that the command and its components had approximately 4,400 assigned forces and civilian personnel. Roughly 2,000 of these personnel were assigned to CJTF-HOA in Djibouti. With the exception of CJTF-HOA, AFRICOM’s component commands do not have assigned forces and must request forces through the formal Joint Staff process.

69. Do you believe that AFRICOM has adequate assigned forces, or is a shortage of assigned forces likely to have an adverse impact on AFRICOM’s ability to implement its mission?

GEN Ham: There are advantages to having assigned forces; however, I have confidence in the current DOD global force management process to make forces available to combatant commanders.

70. If you see an adverse impact on AFRICOM’s mission stemming from a shortage of assigned personnel, what steps, if any, would you take if confirmed to address this problem?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I would use the current DOD force management process to request forces for USAFRICOM missions. I believe that as forces committed to the USCENTCOM AOR reduce over time, more forces will be available to meet other Combatant Command requirements.

National Guard State Partnership Program

In October 2010, the current commander of AFRICOM, General William “Kip” Ward, USA, stated “[t]hat [the State Partnership Program (SPP)] model also works in Africa: Sustained security engagement being conducted by young men and women who are combat-tested, proven veterans with energy, enthusiasm, wanting to contribute, making a difference and doing it on a continent where those who are the recipients of that association are thankful for it.”

71. What is your understanding of the SPP and its effectiveness, not only with State National Guard organizations but also with non-government organizations?

GEN Ham: In my current assignment as U.S. Army Europe commander, my experience with the SPP program has been extremely positive. The relationships formed between National Guard members and a country’s military creates the conditions for success in terms of continued events between the two forces. In Europe, the SPP program has lead to combined Operational Mentor and Liaison Teams deployed to Afghanistan training Afghan security forces. The SPP program also extends to the civilian sector enabling military to civilian and civilian to civilian events as well.

72. Given AFRICOM’s lack of assigned forces, do you see the SPP as a potential force multiplier for AFRICOM?

GEN Ham: The SPP program has enabled many events between the partners that would not have been possible without the SPP program. I see the SPP program as another resource to use in reaching our security cooperation goals.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization Support

At the request of the African Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has provided support to the AU Mission in Sudan and assistance to the AU Mission in Somalia. It is also providing capacity-building support to the AU’s long-term

peacekeeping capabilities, in particular the African Standby Force, at the request of the AU. Through its assistance, NATO has developed a positive and promising level of cooperation with the African Union.

73. Do you see any specific opportunities for NATO to expand its support of international peacekeeping and stability efforts on the African continent?

GEN Ham: Based on my current knowledge, I would not want to recommend any changes to current policy but, if confirmed, I would conduct a more thorough assessment of NATO missions in the USAFRICOM AOR. USAFRICOM and NATO work together in several areas – combating piracy in the waters off Africa and in NATO’s Mediterranean Dialogue countries. Together with other U.S. government agency partners, USAFRICOM closely coordinates efforts to ensure unity of effort. Where possible and when authorized, USAFRICOM and NATO work together.

74. If confirmed, do you intend to pursue expanded support from NATO?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess current operations with NATO before recommending any changes.

75. In your view, do China and the United States share common security objectives in the AFRICOM AOR?

GEN Ham: China and the U.S. both stand to benefit from a more stable and secure Africa. The U.S. and China will continue to look for areas in which we can cooperate with one another in Africa.

76. In your opinion, what effect has China’s engagement with African militaries had on those militaries and on U.S. security interests?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the situation to fully understand the impact of China’s engagement in Africa.

77. Do you foresee China’s growing energy demands affecting security developments in Africa?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the situation to fully understand the impact of China’s energy demand on security policy.

Security Sector Reform

78. In your view, what role should AFRICOM play in U.S. security sector reform efforts in Africa?

GEN Ham: USAFRICOM should play a supporting role to U.S. security sector reforms.

Security sector reforms are complex involving, at times, rebuilding court systems, police forces, military forces, and the supporting government institutions. This requires an interagency approach and USAFRICOM is best used in a supporting role focusing on building the defense sector.

79. In your view, what are the advantages and disadvantages of using uniformed U.S. military personnel (rather than contractors) to support AFRICOM’s efforts in this area?

GEN Ham: I think there is an advantage in using U.S. uniformed personnel as they demonstrate on a daily basis the values we are trying to instill into military forces and are excellent trainers. U.S. military forces also clearly the face of U.S. assistance. Using uniformed military also provides a model for African militaries to emulate and builds personal and professional relationships that last well beyond any training event. U.S. forces are currently in high demand and may be needed in other areas such as Afghanistan. When U.S. forces are unavailable, Department of State contractors can and do provide valuable training for our African partners, but we pass up valuable opportunities to build stronger relationships between our militaries when we use contractors.

80. In your view, are current security cooperation authorities sufficient for AFRICOM to play an effective role in U.S. security reform efforts in Africa?

GEN Ham: There are separate authorities for DOD and DOS which make these efforts possible. If confirmed, I will assess the current authorities prior to making any recommendations.

Special Operations Forces in Support of Country Teams

U.S. Special Operations Command deploys personnel to work with country teams in a number of priority countries where the United States is not engaged in direct action operations, but rather trying to stop the spread of violent extremism. Their mission is to support the priorities of the Ambassador and the geographic combatant commander’s theater campaign plan against terrorist networks.

81. What is your view of the potential value of these special operations personnel to AFRICOM and the country teams they are supporting?

GEN Ham: I recognize that I do not have access to the full range of special operations activities in the USAFRICOM Area of Responsibility. My understanding is special operations personnel are valuable for the training they conduct focusing on counter terrorism in support of Operation Enduring Freedom-Trans Sahara. These forces are also valued since they are familiar with African cultures, speak the local language, and have specialized training. Although a small special operations team is able to make a significant positive impact, forces should be tailored to meet mission requirements.

82. What role, if any, do you see for AFRICOM in ensuring that the goals of special operations personnel deployed to these countries are closely aligned with those of the Ambassadors they are working with?

GEN Ham: The role for USAFRICOM is to coordinate with the Ambassadors, country teams, and with higher headquarters in DOD to ensure special operation teams’ activities are aligned with national and country team priorities.

Information Operations

Operation Objective Voice (OOV) is AFRICOM’s information operation effort to counter violent extremism to repudiate extremist ideologies. OOV employs a variety of messaging platforms, such as the African Web Initiative, to challenge the views of terrorist groups and provide a forum for the expression of alternative points of view. While Congress remains supportive of efforts to counter violent extremism, it remains concerned about the lack of measures of effectiveness of these programs.

83. What is your understanding of OOV and the current measures of performance and effectiveness?

GEN Ham: My understanding is that OOV is a named Information Operation to harness and orient all information operations and influence related activities in theatre to counter violent extremist organization (VEO) ideology. If confirmed, I will assess OOV to fully understand the program and the measures of performance and effectiveness.

84. In your view, should AFRICOM be using the internet and other electronic forums to counter the message of violent extremists operating in its AOR?

GEN Ham: I feel the use of the internet and other electronic forums to counter the message of extremists is appropriate. Extremists’ current use of the internet is effectively bringing people to their cause and severely hindering peace and stability for various regions throughout the AOR. Just as we challenge extremists’ ability to force their agenda on a population through physical actions, we must also challenge their ability to influence through electronic media.

Al Qaeda and affiliated violent extremist groups work hard to appeal to local populations. In both the Horn of Africa and the Trans-Sahara, these efforts have allowed violent extremists to establish a safe haven, conduct operations, and expand their recruiting base. The composition and size of these groups permits them to make policy decisions very quickly.

85. Do you believe AFRICOM and other agencies within the U.S. Government are appropriately organized to respond effectively to the messaging and influence efforts of al Qaeda and other terrorist groups?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the organization of USAFRICOM and its coordination with Department of State and other government agencies to counter the influence of Al Qaeda messaging.

86. What do you believe is the appropriate role for Military Information Support Teams in these activities?

GEN Ham: I believe an appropriate role for MISTs is to reinforce messages for a particular event or purpose. MISTs are one of AFRICOM’s primary communication tools for countering violent extremism. While the lead department for combating terrorism remains the Department of State, the problem of violent extremism requires a whole of government solution and one of DOD’s contributions are its MISTs. These teams are charged to work closely with members of country teams, to gain Ambassador concurrence prior to conducting activities, and to vet all messages thru all participating organizations to preclude unintended effects. MISTs generally conduct activities to reduce recruitment and violence, thereby reducing the need for a kinetic U.S. military response and breaking the cycle of terrorism. My understanding is AFRICOM uses MIST teams for this purpose.

Civil Affairs Activities

Civil affairs activities carried out by U.S. military personnel in partnership with host nation personnel play a role in developing infrastructure, supporting good governance and civil societies, and providing humanitarian assistance, including medical and veterinary services to needy populations. Civil Affairs activities are most effective when coordinated with other U.S. Government efforts, most notably those carried out by USAID.

87. If confirmed, how would you ensure Civil Affairs activities by U.S. military personnel are integrated into larger U.S. government efforts within your AOR?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will ensure that all Civil Affairs activities are vetted thru the country teams and with the USAID senior staff member on the USAFRICOM staff to ensure all actions are properly synchronized and supporting.

Military Information Support Operations can amplify the effect on Civil Affairs activities by promoting the efforts of the U.S. military and host nation.

88. If confirmed, how would you ensure Civil Affairs and Military Information Support Operations are adequately coordinated to achieve a maximum impact?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will ensure that actions of Civil Affairs and information operations are synchronized with the country team and USAID. This is most effectively done by having all organizations involved participate during all stages of planning and execution of any given event.

Section 1208 Funding

Section 1208 of the Ronald Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (Public Law 108-375), as amended, gave U.S. Special Operations Command the

authority to provide support (including training, funding, and equipment) to regular forces, irregular forces, and individuals supporting or facilitating military operations by U.S. special operations forces to combat terrorism.

90. What is your assessment of this authority?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the special operations activities in the USAFRICOM area to determine if this funding is adequate. My understanding is that this funding has been valuable in Iraq and Afghanistan for SOF force training to indigenous personnel as well as for collecting human intelligence in areas where U.S. personnel are unable to infiltrate.

91. Do you believe this authority has been appropriately utilized in Africa?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the special operations activities and funding in the USAFRICOM area to determine if 1208 funds have been appropriately used.

92. If confirmed, how would you seek to have this authority used in Africa?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the special operations activities and funding in the USAFRICOM area to determine if 1208 funds have been appropriately used.

Efficiencies Issues

In an effort to identify efficiencies and ensure better support for the warfighter in Afghanistan and Iraq, Secretary Gates has directed a DOD-wide review of all organizations and associated programs.

93. Given the Secretary’s initiative, in your view, should AFRICOM continue to remain in existence?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will continue GEN Ward’s examination of and efforts to increase the efficiency of his command.

Africa Health Related Issues

Health issues are a significant concern in many African nations and the U.S. Government’s engagement strategy in Africa includes an emphasis on health-related issues.

94. To what extent should the AFRICOM be involved in broader U.S. government “health diplomacy” efforts in Africa?

GEN Ham: USAFRICOM should continue to participate in DOD health related efforts such as the HIV/AIDs program and MEDFLAG exercises. USAFRICOM should also be invited to planning and coordination sessions for new initiatives sponsored by other government agencies to synchronize efforts.

95. In your view, should AFRICOM’s engagement strategy, perhaps more than other combatant command engagement strategies, include an emphasis on military health engagement?

GEN Ham: Given the poverty, health issues, and lack of basic healthcare of some African nations, I believe that USAFRICOM should focus more on military health engagement than other combatant commands. My understanding is African militaries have high rates of HIV infection which direct impacts their readiness and ability to participate in assigned missions.

96. How much success has DOD had in efforts to counter AIDS in African militaries?

GEN Ham: Based on my current knowledge, I believe DOD has had success in AIDS education and prevention in Africa. According to the UN AIDS office, the rate of infection in Africa has declined. I am aware that DOD is very active in AIDS prevention, education, and dissemination of AIDS anti-retroviral treatments with the goal of increasing the readiness of African Nations’ military forces.

97. If confirmed, how, if at all, would you like to see such efforts increased or programmatically altered?

GEN Ham: If confirmed, I will assess the program before recommending changes.

98. In your view, what should DOD’s role be in the program relative to other elements of the U.S. Government?

GEN Ham: DOD should be in a supporting role to other U.S. government agencies.

Technology Support for AFRICOM Missions

The defense research and technology community has developed a number of capabilities that are potentially supportive of AFRICOM’s missions – including vaccines to combat infectious diseases, language translation systems, and cultural modeling and simulation tools and war games.

99. What specific technology-based capabilities do you feel need to be developed or improved in order to best support AFRICOM’s missions?

GEN Ham: In our quest to develop “African systems for Africans” we must partner with national industries to jointly develop technology to meet their requirements. One area that could be examined is communication systems. USAFRICOM has been working to develop a command and control computer system that could be used in African Union peacekeeping missions. A second area is de-mining operations. An inexpensive method of identifying mines would be beneficial to many areas of the continent. A third area would be the development of

water purification methods as much of the water is untreated and can causes disease. The key to technologies is to keep them inexpensive and simple to use and maintain.

100. If confirmed, how would you work with the defense research and acquisition community to ensure that they are aware of those needs and supportive of AFRICOM’s missions?

GEN Ham: USAFRICOM has a robust relationship with the members of the community. I feel the best way to is to leverage the research and acquisition community members assigned to the USAFRICOM staff.

Congressional Oversight

In order to exercise its legislative and oversight responsibilities, it is important that this Committee and other appropriate committees of the Congress are able to receive testimony, briefings, and other communications of information.

101. Do you agree, if confirmed for this high position, to appear before this Committee and other appropriate committees of the Congress?

GEN Ham: Yes

102. Do you agree, when asked, to give your personal views, even if those views differ from the Administration in power?

GEN Ham: Yes

103. Do you agree, if confirmed, to appear before this Committee, or designated members of this Committee, and provide information, subject to appropriate and necessary security protection, with respect to your responsibilities as the Commander, AFRICOM?

GEN Ham: Yes

104. Do you agree to ensure that testimony, briefings and other communications of information are provided to this Committee and its staff and other appropriate Committees?

GEN Ham: Yes

105. Do you agree to provide documents, including copies of electronic forms of communication, in a timely manner when requested by a duly constituted Committee, or to consult with the Committee regarding the basis for any good faith delay or denial in providing such documents?

GEN Ham: Yes

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